Original article:

Redness enhances perceived aggression, dominance and attractiveness in men’s faces

Evolutionary Psychology 10(3): 562-572 Ian D. Stephen, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Semenyih, Malaysia, ian.stephen@nottingham.edu.myFrancesca H. Oldham, Evolutionary Anthropology Research Group, Durham University, Durham, UKDavid I. Perrett, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UKRobert A. Barton, Evolutionary Anthropology Research Group, Durham University, Durham, UK

Abstract

In a range of non-human primate, bird and fish species, the intensity of red coloration in males is associated with social dominance, testosterone levels and mate selection. In humans too, skin redness is associated with health, but it is not known whether – as in non-human species – it is also associated with dominance and links to attractiveness have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we allow female participants to manipulate the CIELab a* value (red-green axis) of skin to maximize the perceived aggression, dominance and attractiveness of photographs of men’s faces, and make two findings. First, participants increased a* (increasing redness) to enhance each attribute, suggesting that facial redness is perceived as conveying similar information about a male’s qualities in humans as it does in non-human species. Second, there were significant differences between trial types: the highest levels of red were associated with aggression, an intermediate level with dominance, and the least with attractiveness. These differences may reflect a trade-off between the benefits of selecting a healthy, dominant partner and the negative consequences of aggression.

Keywords

attractiveness, face, men, aggression, dominance, perception

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Evolutionary Psychology - An open access peer-reviewed journal - ISSN 1474-7049 © Ian Pitchford and Robert M. Young; individual articles © the author(s)
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